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Refraction Seismic

The Refraction Seismic method is able to accurately distinguish bedrock from the overlying sediment because of contrasting seismic velocities. 

This sample cross section from a Refraction Seismic survey demonstrates G&As ability to accurately define lateral, as well as horizontal changes in seismic velocity.

Seismic Refraction Model thumb

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When detailed, high-resolution data are necessary, many shot points may be required. Our software is capable of processing up to 300 shot points, increasing the subsurface ray-path coverage many times over conventional surveys with only 5 or 7 shot-points.


This 3-D Refraction Seismic model was created in order to visualize the 3-D nature of the site rippability (excavatibility) characteristics, and to allow for the most economically advantageous construction strategy.

3D Seismic Refraction Model thumb

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Solid Modeling was achieved through the Inverse-Distance Weighting Algorithm. This algorithm forms a regular, 3-D grid of values to create a solid model which assigns a seismic velocity value (v) to each node (x,y,z value) within the volume.

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